This web site intends to use only information based on Primary Sources, and particularly so when the information relates to Oscar Wilde. By a primary source we mean the contemporaneous, documented, and reliable viewpoint of an individual participant or observer usually in the form of:

  • Newspapers, periodicals and other published materials reporting actual events, interviews, etc., by participants or observers.
  • Journals, speeches, letters, memos, manuscripts, diaries and other papers in which individuals describe events in which they were participants or observers.
  • Records of organizations. The minutes, reports,  correspondence, etc. of an organization or agency.
  • Primary accounts contained in memoirs, biography and autobiography although these may be less reliable if they are written well after the event especially if distorted by personal agenda, dimming memory or the revised perspective that may come with hindsight.
  • Period photographs.

For a lighter discussion of this topic see Blog article: Primary Sources


Included articles, essays, and ephemera are in the public domain because their copyright has expired. All images are mere mechanical scans or photocopies of public domain originals. From the available evidence they are so similar to such scans or photocopies that no copyright protection can be expected to arise. The originals themselves are in the public domain because their copyright has expired.

Original text is copyright © John Cooper.


‍Letters: Holland, Merlin and and Hart-Davis, Rupert, Eds. The Complete Letters of Oscar Wilde, London: Fourth Estate; New York: Henry Holt, 2000. 

‍Interviews: Oscar Wilde in America: The Interviews, by Oscar Wilde, Gary Scharnhorst (Editor), Matthew Hofer (Editor). University of Illinois Press, 2010.

‍Ellmann: Ellmann, Richard. Oscar Wilde. London: Hamish Hamilton; New York: Knopf, 1987.

‍Beckson: Beckson, Karl E., ed. The Oscar Wilde Encyclopedia. New York: AMS Press, 1998.

‍L&S: Lloyd Lewis and Henry Justin Smith. Oscar Wilde Discovers America: 1882, 1936. New York: Benjamin Blom, reprinted 1967.

‍Mikhail: Mikhail, E. H., ed. Oscar Wilde: Interviews and Recollections. 2 vols. London: MacMillan, 1979.

‍Page: Page, Norman. An Oscar Wilde Chronology. Houndmills: MacMillian; Boston: G. K. Hall, 1991.

‍Ransome: Ransome, Arthur. Oscar Wilde A Critical Study, 1912. 

‍Miscellanies: Vol. XIV of The Complete Works of Oscar Wilde, 1908, fourteen vols. edited by Robert Ross.

‍NYT: The New York Times.

‍NYH: The New York Herald

‍NYW: The New York World

‍NYTRIB: New York Tribune

‍BE: Brooklyn Eagle

‍CHTRIB: Chicago Tribune

‍NYPL: New York Public Library

‍Throughout this site you will see reference to Mason. This is a common notation in Wilde studies and it refers to:

‍Bibliography of Oscar Wilde, (1914)

‍by Stuart Mason [1]


‍[1] Pen name of Christopher Sclater Millard.

By a primary source we mean the contemporaneous, documented, and reliable viewpoint of an individual participant or observer.


This is an ongoing list of those whom I would like to thank for their assistance and support.

Dorothy Cooper, Merlin Holland, Donald Mead, Michael Seeney, Mark Samuels Lasner, Margaret Stetz, Geoff Dibb, David M. Friedman, Andrew J. Morris, Rob Marland, Rachel Klingberg, JD Murphy, Walter W. Walker, The Quote Investigator, Nigel Rees, Michael May, Reference Department at Stockton-San Joaquin County Public Library, Stockton, CA., Bernadette Murphy, Head of Information Services, International New York Times, Paris, South Kingstown Public Library/Peace Dale, Brian Gallagher and Prof. Jim Kinnie of the University of Rhode Island Carothers Library; Shirley Eastham, President of the Narragansett Historical Society; and Samuel Judd

Reference and Information Services Librarian at the Maury Loontjens Memorial Library, Mark Osterman of the George Eastman Museum.

Recommended reading:

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Oscar Wilde In America | © John Cooper, 2020